Techniques of Science Denial – Recognizing common ways of communication.

A healthy democracy relies on a well-informed public. That is why it is so important to address common misconceptions of science.

A significant point to being resilient against misinformation is understanding different fallacious arguments techniques and logical fallacies.

The F.L.I.C.C. Framework*  –
Techniques of Science Denial 

fake experts


 We often call upon experts if we are stuck in an argument. But if this experts is not a expert in the particular field being discussed it becomes a fallacy, also known as “Appeal to False Authority”.

logical fallacies


We often see arguments that seem to somehow make sense but when you look closer are logically inconsistent.

impossible expectations


Back-end developers will program in the functions of a website that will collect data.

Cherry Picking


This means ignoring the full body of evidence and only selecting data that confirms a position while ignoring other data that contradicts it, also known as fallacy of incomplete evidence.


In the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

*John Cook who founded the website Skeptical Science is a research fellow at the Climate Change Communication Research Hub at Monash University, and the author behind the F.L.I.C.C Framework.
Icons by SkepticalScience - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Fake Experts

This science denial technique means presenting an unqualified person or institution as a source of credible information. So, these people appear to be experts; they might be scientists, just not experts of this particular field being discussed. Being a cardiologist does not make you an expert in virology, for example. 

Magnified Minority

A Magnified Minority means amplifying a minority’s view to make it look like there is more disagreement in the scientific community than there really is.

Fake Debate

Another way people can get confused about scientific consensus is by presenting pseudoscience and science as two opposing sides.

Like when a talk show puts up a Flat Earther against an Astronomer. This can give people the impression of an ongoing scientific debate when there really is consensus that the Earth is round.